Future Culture

Futurist Writer Lei Kalina writes her tongue-in-cheek musings and ramblings on the growing worldwide phenomenon of the growth of the Future Culture in the 21st Century

Future Culture In The 21st Century

Future Culture In the 21st Century

Futures Studies, Foresight, or Futurology , according to Wikipedia, is the science, art and practice of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Futures studies (colloquially called "Futures" by many of the field's practitioners) seeks to understand what is likely to continue, what is likely to change, and what is novel. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, and to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Futures is an interdisciplinary field, studying yesterday's and today's changes, and aggregating and analyzing both lay and professional strategies, and opinions with respect to tomorrow.

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Zabosu Project: "Remote-Controlled Humans" Gone Pfffft, For Now

SUDDENLY  , THE DEAFENING LULL  after  the storm.

It  was only  a little more than  thirty days ago when  all the media hype and  the whole shebang  of  press statements abound ,   with much ado  about  
the  so-called  Zabosu Project       which  launched an  Internet-based   worldwide  campaign  crowdsourcing funds   for   some  $100,000  at least ---   to  kickstart  the launch  of  having  "remote-controlled humans"  via  4G technology.  

Technoprogressive  enthusiasts and  kibitzers  are wondering  about  the  silence  after all the  bubbly media hype  for  Zabosu  via   its    Kickstarter campaign for the project,  "a mobile marketplace for remote-controlled humans"   --    and  the  buzz seemed to have mellowed recently   as  enthusiasts  look  for clues if it is going boom, bust,  or  pffffft. 

This may be the second  time  that  Karl Lautman,  CEO  and creator of the  Zabosu  project will be shelving the idea due to lack of funding:   after grinning and bearing it through all the avalanche of  flak from all directions.  From the Kickstarter website, the  project ,after its  July 19 deadline,  had a  very poor finish :   only a total of  31 backers and some  $2985 pledges for funding,  which finally made the project succumb to shelving.

When it was cancelled the first time early this year,  Lautman said that  (the organizers) "
 had a choice between participating and trying to leverage sufficient PR from it to support our Kickstarter, or passing on it in order to devote an appropriate amount of time to a formal PR campaign ...  When it became obvious that the pitch-off would not offer sufficient leverage, Zabosu cancelled its Kickstarter to  regroup around a proper PR campaign." 

Everbody is now  mum  about the project apparently  shelved for the meantime:  Lautman ,   Kickstarter ( which  helped  promote  Lautman's idea  now   has no promotions at the moment),   and even  the  few backers who may have initially pledged  their  "interest" about the proJect.

Earlier,  the Zabosu proponents were all perky, bubbly and  bright-eyed with  what could be a "breakthrough"  ( many disagree with this)  from the doldrums of the  TaskRabbit    low-tech idea  of having another person do 
your task for you: whether it be buying a present for a loved one,    
attending a conference at the other part of the world, or doing 
  some  supermarket buying chores. 

“The inspiration for Zabosu came from Justin.tv, a web show in 2007 that followed Justin Kan as he roamed San Francisco with a backpack full of cellular data modems livestreaming audio and video of his life, pretty much 24/7,” says  Lautman.   “At that time, I thought how much more interesting it would be if viewers could talk back to Justin and tell him what to do, but the technology just wasn’t there yet.   When I finally saw 4G cellular networks on the horizon, which are capable of the requisite 1 Mbps upload speed, I began development of Zabosu in earnest.”

Terminator Cute

Truth is ,   there are  no  "remote-controlled humans"  per se  in this project,  no androids,  no cyborgs,  no computer-to-brain interface  "dictating"  the subordinate on what to do,  no  Stepford Wife  fembots,   no telepresence avatars.   The said phrase  could possibly  be Lautman's idea to  spice up the hype for some  "controversial flavor",  catching the attention  of the  tech  intelligentsia  community.

Simplified:  It's   more like  Skype-to-Skype  between  boss  (the so-called  "zab")  and  the subordinate  (the so-called "zuk")  ,  and  the  "zab"  giving directions  from the office/home,  while the "zuk"  is  out on field doing the task  for the "boss"   ---  all these  with a tweak customized for the Zabosu project.  

The Zabosu  marketing blitz transcended  what was thought of  as a  creepy idea on having  "remote-controlled  humans":   what with its  come-hither allure  for  the  easy-to-impress  EveryMan .  Hear this:

"Hi, Kickstarter! Zabosu’s developed an incredible, almost magical service that lets one person actually take control of another person, anywhere in the world there’s a 4G cellular signal. It’s not quite as crazy as it sounds. The person being controlled, who we call an “Actor,” starts our app and sticks their phone in a pocket (or on a lanyard) with the camera facing out to stream live audio and video of their surroundings."
"The person controlling them, who we call a “Director,” connects to the stream with a web browser to see and hear everything going on around the Actor, from the Actor’s point of view. The Director also speaks to the Actor using the computer’s microphone and the Actor’s earpiece. Because the Director is paying the Actor, the Actor does what the Director tells them to do. The intention, in most applications, is to make the Actor a human extension, or projection, of the Director into whatever environment the Actor happens to be in."

Zabosu Actor PageZabosu Actor Page

Zabosu App
Zabosu  App 

Kickstarter further writes: 

"Some of the things we imagine Zabosu being 
used for are  sightseeing,  running errands, shopping, 
virtual assistants, gaming, buying a home, 
remote tradeshow attendance, and technical assistance. 
There are also situations where you might want to 
control  multiple Actors simultaneously."

"Let’s say you’re looking for a new office and there

 are four  candidate spaces. You could hire four Actors 
and send one  to each space, even at the same time,
 to evaluate all the  candidates in less time than it would
 take you to visit even  one. Maybe you’re not looking 
for an office, though.  Maybe it’s a wedding venue.
 Or, a resort for the holidays.  You could even assemble
an army of Actors and make a bid for world domination
(you'd fail, horribly, but you definitely could try)."

"These are just our ideas, though, and one of the 
reasons  we're using Kickstarter is to find out how others
 might use Zabosu.  In the survey that goes out at the end
of the campaign, we’ll be asking you what your plans 
are for it, so we can better target it for people's
intended uses."


"The Zabosu web site will let Directors find and 
schedule Actors based on relevant characteristics like
 location, availability and skills. The site also archives 
the videos, so Directors, Actors and others (we call 
them “Viewers”) can watch them later."

"It’ll also let Actors (who are independent contractors
and not employed by Zabosu) create pages for themselves 
describing where they’re based, what they’re willing to
 do as an Actor, what they've specifically done for Directors,
 and so on."

"ZabosuConnect, the phone app used by the Actor 
(only Android 4.1 “Jelly Bean” and later at launch) 
shows them where they are, where they’re supposed 
to be, what they’re supposed to be doing, and other 
handy stuff."

"So, what does this have to do with Kickstarter? Well, 
we’re super excited about enabling fun, valuable
and unprecedented human interactions, but just 
because  we think this stuff’s cool doesn't mean 
enough other people  will to make it a viable 
business. That’s where you come in.  If we hit our 
funding goal, we’ll know we’re on to  something 
awesome  and will keep working at it. The hardest 
and riskiest parts are already done (the app is fully
 functioning at this point).

 What’s left is all stuff the team has done many 

times before,  so we believe we’ll be able to launch by
 the end of the year."

c a1pgl80b0 Outstanding Android & Cyborg Digital Inspiration

Karl Lautman,  the main man at the helm of this project,   
more  popular with his background as  a sculptor-visual 
artist  whose works  have received  some recognition,   
could be  just gathering his  seond wind,  or  probably 
"third wind"  the next time he dishes out  his ideas  for the 
public  to ogle on.

Karl Lautman  

His ideas may be bizarre  or  out-of-this-world, and  he 
may say that he is entitled to these  conundrums of 
eclectic trends of thought and sudden outbursts  of 
unorthodox perspectives.   But  he  remains unperturbed
and  may be hurling  out  more  unconventional  ideas
for the  public  --  and the  subsequent  superlatives   
coming from all   fronts as usual,   may be  an ordinary 
occurrence  for Lautman.  

Lautman writes his statement:

"The power and ubiquity of technology has bred 
complacency among those who use it regularly
 (i.e. virtually everyone in the developed world). 
While most would agree that we should not place too 
much faith in machines, in reality we can't help taking 
for granted that the light will go on when we flip the switch, 
the car will start when we turn the key, the plane won't
 fall from the sky, .... Yet the capacity of machines
 to misbehave is endless.  In fact, it's their nature."

"I'm fascinated by this tension between what we want, and
expect, a machine to do, and what the machine "wants" to do.
I call it "machine tension,"   or just "McTension."
I explore McTension in my work  by making things that behave
unexpectedly, though  not strictly randomly. While the behavior
may  be easier to infer for some of my machines than  for others,
they all tend to have an unpredictable  (or, at least, 
difficult-to-predict) element to them."

"Whether it's calculating prime numbers on electromechanical 
counters, causing falling dominoes  to stand themselves up 
again, or generating organized  sequences of clicks on 
a relay (but at random intervals),  the effect is simultaneously
familiar and surprising.  

Pseudo-randomness isn't difficult to achieve, but also  isn't 

very interesting, so I strive to make my  work entertaining, 
sometimes even whimsical,  rather than impenetrable."

Monday, July 7, 2014

Google Glass' RaceYourself App: Run With The Zombies !!

From  The Pinay Sunset Runner

FOR  ALL  YE  GOOGLE GLASS NEWS  FANS AND   FOLLOWERS,   you may have already heard the news  about   the latest  killer app   that has been hitting the  tech blog headlines:    all about  Google Glass'  RaceYourself app  for running and fitness enthusiasts.    

Interestingly,  more and more  are  giving their thumbs up and elite nods , especially from  technology evangelists  ,  future tech vigilantes,  and techno-progressive  analysts and enthusiasts alike. This early,   it has garnered the first of its future awards,  recently  proclaimed as the  Best Design App in Fitness Nutrition and Diet Category by the UK Mobile and App Design Awards in London held just this June 2014

And who wouldn't take a second look at this  beauty:    what with its adrenaline-pumping  tech effects such as  simulations of  flesh-eating zombies  running after you and make you run for your life,  or  the challenging one-two punches   via  your very own avatar  with your own personal running best time --   urging you to  , as the app says,  Race Yourself. 


                         YouTube  Screengrab

And there's more:  RaceYourself takes you to  riveting and surreal heights in augmented reality fashion. 

While on your run,  you go through a myriad of scenes,  such as  running but also   "flying"  as the app takes you through a skydiving experience, showing a sea of other "skydivers"  with you,   and later  it  takes you to a virtual marathon of identically-clad runners in purple shirts,  then  brings you to a  skiing scenario  with all the snowy mountain slopes with your  other "fellow skiers".   

And next thing you know,  you later find yourself on the road running for your life  with a huge rolling boulder  seemingly  following you at each turn and out to get ya!   As you run faster and faster,  you find yourself on a  beach,  and  as you continue your workout,   you're suddenly  in the middle of a  virtual bike race with cyclists via  a surreal Tour De France.   Just when you think you have had enough,     you  later  come across   a platoon of zombies hungry to eat your brains out --  making  you scamper away through all these hoopla of uberly  cool excitement and fun.

That's  a total of  thirty  game modes in the said app,  and this defines the future of fitness and exercise  as being far from the gloom and doom of boredom.

But experts say that all these are far from kidstuff. 

Company co-founder Alex Foster  said in a recent press release:    “Imagine racing against your own personal best, chasing a friend you want to beat or even escaping a 400-tonne cargo train traveling at your target marathon pace," company co-founder    "By blending reality with virtual reality, we can make workouts a lot more interesting and motivating."

“As well as making exercise more interesting, we wanted to incorporate the addictive and social elements from gaming. That’s why we reward users with unlockable games for completing workouts, "  he says.

Foster adds:   "Exercise is incredibly good for you. Gaming is incredibly addictive and enjoyable. Our goal is make exercise incredibly addictive and enjoyable through augmented reality exercise experiences on, primarily, Google Glass.     “We are offering similar promises; more motivation, tracking, competition… but visually and live, that is, the user knows if they are beating or falling behind their personal best or target pace the whole way through the run.”

Meantime,  the  app's  Beta version,  now  open for applications  but limited to American citizens who are over 18,    will  be more accessible to  a wider audience  later this year ,  according to the app developers.   

                         YouTube  Screengrab

                        YouTube  Screengrab

                         YouTube  Screengrab

                         YouTube  Screengrab

With the Glass'  voice recognition technology ,  wearers  of the smarrt  eyewear  can  just   whisper   "O.K., Glass"  to activate  it,   and  can give you an array of  choices on what to do while  on your run:  "Take a picture",   "Record a video",   "Give me directions  to the  nearest  fastfood"  ---  and  Glass would dutifully  do its job for you.  

RaceYouself's  Chief Operating Officer  Richard Goodrum said in a statement that  the growing RaceYourself fans,  this  early,  would enjoy  more upcoming features  to further enhance the  app ,  taking it to  the next level via another game mode,  which is the race track. 

"Taking  RaceYourself  to the racetrack  is definitely something we have been thinking about and we have already started talking to a company regarding Google Glass integration with helmets.  To put a car avatar on the track that drives ahead of you,  much like in the game Gran Turismo,  would actually be more accurate than a running man avatar."

"We could even adapt the chasing aspect of RaceYourself  to beat your previous lap around the track,  you can be driving away from a monster truck or Godzilla. "

"When it comes to the safety aspect of it,  some do not realize that the Google Glass display  is  slightly  off to the top right of your vision,  meaning that you can easily obtain a clear view of the road ahead without serious distraction." 

2236060 orig 730x408 Flee from zombies and giant boulders with the Race Yourself fitness app for Google Glass
YouTube  Screengrab

YouTube  Screengrab

Goodrum further says that the  app's  newest version,   available later this year, would  also be "revolutionizing the racetrack experience"  for  track day enthusiasts and professional racing drivers  as they  see a visual representation of their lap to  beat.

"With the release of the RaceYourself app aligned with the Google Glass' recent launch,  we will be looking to pursue the car aspect of the app  later in the year. "

Meantime,  amidst all the media razzmatazz ,   recent news  reported banning  of Google Glass in  UK cinemas,   with  theatre operators alarmed about the device's recording function which  wearers can use inconspicuously to  record the films being shown for the public.

Google Glass has just arrived in the UK  last June 23,  but this early,  while early Glass Explorer beta testers  have been pouring to check out the smart eyewear,   controversy is blocking its marketing strategies  for a full take-off.

Photo from Google Glass'  RaceYourself site

Photo from Google Glass'  RaceYourself site

London's  The  Independent reported the growing concern  among theater owners regarding the idea and possibility of  the device wearers easily recording pirated copies of their  films being shown in their theatres. Cinema Exhibitors Association  CEO    Phil Clapp told the paper  that   "recording in cinemas is the source of more than  90 per cent of all illegally copied fils in their release form.  Customers will be requested not to wear these into cinema auditoriums,  whether the film is playing or not."  

As  UK filmgoers  enter the cinemas,   they will be greeted by this sign: 

"“As a courtesy to your fellow audience members, and to prevent film theft, we ask that customers do not enter any cinema auditorium using any 'wearable technology' capable of recording images. Any customer found wearing such technology will be asked to remove it and may be asked to leave the cinema.”

The  UK  stages a first by  getting  the frontseat of initial  global sale of the Glass  outside the US, with  units  priced at   1,000 British Pounds, equivalent to  about   US$1703.  However,   the ban  stays  ---   covering  some  750 cinemas within  the UK,  which includes England,  Scotland,  Wales and  Northern Ireland.  

Related to the  most recent controversy,  Google issued  its  statement:

"We encourage any cinemas concerned about Glass to treat the device as they treat similar devices like mobile phones: simply ask wearers to turn it off before the film starts. Broadly speaking, we also think it's best to have direct and first-hand experience with Glass before creating policies around it. The fact that Glass is worn above the eyes and the screen lights up whenever it’s activated makes it a fairly lousy device for recording things secretly.”


Thursday, June 26, 2014

"Bionic Olympics" for Global Parathletes By October 2016

WHEN  CELEBRATED CASE AND    QUADRIPLEGIC PATIENT Cathy  Hutchinson, paralyzed from the neck down  seventeen years ago    and later  dubbed by international  scientists  as “Patient S3” last 2012   --     successfully  picked up a flask of coffee  and sipped through its straw   via    thought-controlled   robotic arms and brain-computer interface   --  advanced science enthusiasts  knew that  the best  is  about  to come.

Hutchinson’s case was an exceptional breakthrough,  which celebrated the success of  enabling people with severe paralysis to  maneuver thought-controlled  robotic arms,  using brain-to-computer neural implants,  which the  technological process,  called BrainGate II  --  the updated version used on Hutchinson --  made possible.

In the initial stages six years ago  (2006),  paralyzed patients could have only moved a curser on the computer screen monitor using their thoughts.  Whats the secret behind this  breakthrough?   No secret. A surgically-implanted electrode on the patient's brain the size of a baby aspirin interprets the electric  signals it relays -- enabling the movements to take place.   

 wearers of the assistive devices will be known as pilots and the technology they use can be available commercially or developed for them as a prototype in a lab. A bionic hand called the iLimb, which is commercially available from Touch Bionics is pictured

Lead researcher  and neuroscientist  John Donoghue from Brown University,  noting that “we now show that people with longstanding, profound paralysis can move complex real-world machines like robotic arms, and not just virtual devices, like a dot on a computer

BrainGateII  as  process later transforms into a muti-million company with its  noble mission  “to improve of the quality of life for all disabled humans,  (and)  additionally seeking “ to increase the usage of BrainGate related technology in both medical and non-medical applications and facilitate innovation in invasive and non-invasive brain research.”

Further,  it  is  geared  “to create technology that will allow severely disabled individuals—including those with traumatic spinal cord injury and loss of limbs—to communicate and control common everyday functions literally through thought…  teaming up with a seasoned team of enterpreneurs  aiming to advance movement through thought alone “ achieved through partnership with leading academic institutions institutions, corporations, and various non-profit and government organizations working on the research, science, and development of applied commercial technology.”

Meantime,  the likes of Cathy Hutchinson who were disabled by accidents or by birth have something more to look forward to.

By  October  2016,  all roads lead to the first-ever   Cybathlon  ---  an international  sporting  event  for for  parathletes wherein athletic events  actively encourage the use and development of  pioneering robotic technology  --   with the use of  leg prosthetics ,   powered exoskeletons and powered wheelchairs,      brain-computer interface , and  functional electrical stimulation (FES)  via bike races, and more. 

A clear first for all-time:   to be held at the  Kolping Arena  in Kloten, Zurich, Switzerland, wherein parathletes worldwide can be given the opportunity to compete internationally  using robot-assisted technology and  showcase the maximum performance and practical functionality of  artificial intelligence for persons with disabilities (PWD).  

From powered exoskeleton races to competitions using brain power (illustrated), the first Olympics for bionic athletes, called the Cybathlon, will take place in Switzerland in October 2016
Photos  via  YouTube Screengrab
From powered exoskeleton races to competitions using brain power (illustrated), the first Olympics for bionic athletes, called the Cybathlon, will take place in Switzerland in October 2016

Event  organizers ,  including  Swiss National Competence Center of Research in Robotics (NCCR Robotics) ,  one of the main goals of the  Cybathlon is  “to provide a platform for the development of  novel-assistive technologies  that are useful for daily life…  Through the organization of the Cybathlon we want to help removing barriers between the public, people with disabilities and science. It is hoped that  the competition will spur interest in human performance-enhancing technology.”

Prizes will be awarded to both the winning athletes in each event and to the company behind the software or technological device used.   Organized on behalf of the Swiss National Competence Center of Research in Robotics (NCCR Robotics), the competition is open to technology already available on the market, or to research development projects by laboratories.

Earlier reports mentioned that   a variety of disciplines  would be applying  state-of-the-art technology for the most modern  “powered knee prostheses, wearable arm prostheses, powered exoskeletons, powered wheelchairs, electrically stimulated muscles and novel brain-computer interfaces…   Even  totally paralyzed people will be able to take part, using brain-computer interface.”

“The assistive devices can include commercially available products provided by companies, but also prototypes developed by research labs. There will be two medals for each competition, one for the pilot, who is driving the device, and one for the provider of the device.”

In a  recent BBC news report,   University of Switzerland Professor Robert Riener,  also part of the event organizing team, explained that "much too often,   there  is  disconnect between  patients and technology.  The idea is that we want to push development of assistive technologies towards devices that patients can really use in everyday life.  While some of the current technologies look very fancy but are a long way from being practical and user-friendly,  we would want technology  to be useful for daily living for these persons with disabilities.”

 “Further  ,  we are allowing use of technology in this event,  which has previously been excluded from the Paralympics. By making it a public event,  we want to get rid of the borders between patients, society and the technology community. Our other main aim for the games is to allow people to compete who have never had the opportunity before,” Reiner says.

From  website  Sophimania.lamula.pe

Photo via  YouTube Screengrab

Pilots with leg amputation will be equipped with machine operated prostheses and will have to successfully complete a race course (pictured) as quickly as possible, which will include obstacles such as slopes, a staircase, cobblestones and a seesaw

In the Powered Exoskeleton Race (pictured), pilots with complete thoracic or lumbar Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) will be equipped with actuated exoskeletal devices, which will enable them to walk along a particular race course

Photo via  YouTube Screengrab
In the Powered Exoskeleton Race (pictured), pilots with complete thoracic or lumbar Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) will be equipped with actuated exoskeletal devices, which will enable them to walk along a particular race course

Meantime,  The Verge News reports:

“Unlike the Olympics, where athletes can use prosthetics only to make themselves as good as able-bodied athletes and not better, Cybathlon competitors are encouraged to use the best technology. Dual prizes will be awarded, one to the athlete and one to the company that created the prosthetic, device, or software.”

"The rules of the competition are made in such way that the novel technology will give the pilot an advantage over a pilot that would use a comparable but less advanced or conventional assistive technology," the organization says on its website. "There will be as few technical constraints as possible, in order to encourage the device providers to develop novel and powerful solutions."

“Of course, the races will be slower than their Olympic counterparts, but they're also arguably more mind-boggling. The exoskeleton competitors, for example, must walk over a slope, up steps, around pillars, over a see-saw, across a narrow beam, then pick up a bag and carry it, go around tight corners, and then sprint to the finish line.”

Pilots with forearm or upper arm amputations will be equipped with actuated exoprosthetic devices and will have to successfully complete two hand-arm task courses as quickly as possible (illustrated). A close-up camera view will be used to life-display the shoot on the stadium screens. At least two participants will start at the same time on two identical courses,
 to make the event more exciting
Photo via  YouTube Screengrab

Pilots with forearm or upper arm amputations will be equipped with actuated exoprosthetic devices and will have to successfully complete two hand-arm task courses as quickly as possible (illustrated). A close-up camera view will be used to life-display the shoot on the stadium screens. At least two participants will start at the same time on two identical courses, to make the event more exciting

Parathletes at Cybathlon,  however, will be called “pilots”,  using exoskeletons like those by Ekso Bionics,   to  trudge through obstacle courses,  powered  wheelchairs  will be seeing action as well,   while  FES  ( Functional Electrical Stimulation) of nerves for paralyzed limbs  assist the parathletes competing in the bike race.   Meantime,  arm  amputees  use robotic prosthetics “to navigate a wire course as quickly and nimbly as possible without touching the wire.”

SingularityHub.com  further reports: 

“Robotic prosthetics (arm and leg), like those from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University, use computers to recognize electrical patterns in muscles and nerves and allow patients to control bionic limbs with thoughts alone. Some are even beginning to send rudimentary sensory touch information back to the brain.”

“The Cybathlon wouldn’t be possible without these technologies, but perhaps it wouldn’t be quite as urgent if they weren’t still confined to labs and clinical trials. The hope is the Cybathlon can add another incentive to speed things along.”

The Powered Wheelchair Race (illustrated) will allow pilots with different disability levels (e.g. quadriplegics, paraplegics, amputees) to be equipped with power wheelchairs, which will enable them to steer along a particular race course. The course will be defined by cones between which the pilots will have to manoeuvre the chair both forward and backward. In addition, obstacles of different sizes will be used.

In one of the six disciplines at the games, participants will use powered wheelchairs to steer along a race course with slopes
 and uneven (illustrated) surfaces as well as a slalom



Powered arm prostheses race: Pilots with arm amputations will be equipped with robotic prostheses and will have to successfully complete two hand-arm task courses as quickly as possible.
One of the challenges will see pilots holding a wire loop which they will use to navigate a metal wire without touching it. Another race will see participants pick up differently shaped objects in order to demonstrate the dexterity of their prostheses.
Brain computer interface race: Pilots will be equipped with technology that lets them control an avatar in a racing game played on computers using their brains. They will race along a track with obstacles.
Functional electrical stimulation bike race: Pilots with spinal cord injuries will use functional electrical stimulation devices, which will enable them to perform a pedaling movement on a cycling device that drives them on a circular course. There will be two categories - a sprint race, over a distance of 200metres and an endurance race over the distance of 1000metres.
Powered leg prostheses race: Pilots with transfemoral amputation will be equipped with machine operated prostheses and will have to successfully complete a race course as quickly as possible, which will include obstacles such as slopes, a staircase, cobblestones and seesaw.
Powered exoskelton race: Pilots with spinal cord injuries (SCI) will use powered exoskeletons to negotiate a race course with obstacles of around 100metres.
Powered wheelchair race: Participants will use powered wheelchairs to steer along a race course with slopes and uneven surfaces as well as a slalom